Abstracts

International Botany Conference 2018, University of Chitral

DATA SHARING, MAXIMIZING IMPACT, FACILITATING RESEARCH AND OUTREACH

Authors : Mary Elizabeth Barkworth

Abstract - Science today is distinguished by the ability to draw on massive amounts of data and collaboration. This is most evident in fields that can rely on mechanical data capture, but it is also true in other fields - including systematic botany. Today’s taxonomists must learn to participate in this new knowledge landscape. Doing so will magnify the impact of their work, reduce the amount of time spent copying existing information, encourage better practices in data recording, and promote collaboration. I shall demonstrate how Symbiota, open source software currently used by over 400 natural history collections, can assist collections, collectors, and scientists in many disciplines benefit from and contribute to the new landscape while assisting in publication of well-documented scientific papers and generation of outreach resources. In so doing, they will reinforce the importance of taxonomy, taxonomists, and natural history collections to biodiversity research. The talk will be illustrated with examples from OpenHerbarium (http://Openherbarium.org). It will also show how bidirectional links between Key base (http://keybase.rbg.vic.gov.au/) and OpenHerbarium can provide access to readily updated taxonomic and floristic treatments.

Keywords - No

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POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME ONOSMA L. SPECIES (BORAGINACEAE) DISTRIBUTED IN PAN HIMALAYAN REGIONS

Authors : ParasMazari, Quan-Ru Liu

Abstract - Onosma L. is a large genus of about 150 species, belonging to the tribe Lithospermeae- family Boraginaceae. In this study, the pollen morphology of 15 Onosma L. species have been examined by SEM for the first time from Pan Himalayan regions of Pakistan and China. The species are O. confertum, O. dichroanthum, O. exsertum, O. fistulosum, O. glomeratum, O. hispida, O. hookeri var. hirsutum, O. hookeri var. longiflorum, O. limitaneum, O. maaikangense, O. multiramosum, O. paniculatum, O. sinicum, O. waddeli, O. waltonii. Out of these O. glomeratum and O. multiramosum O. hookerivar. hirsutum, O. hookerivar. longiflorum are studied for the first time under the aspects of palynology. The pollen grains generally were monad, radially symmetrical, isopolar or heteropolar. All the studied taxa have small sized pollen grains except O. multiramosum which has medium pollen size with 25.43 µm long polar axis and to 16.93 µm equatorial diameter. The smallest size of pollen was observed in O. waltonii with 10.00 µm long polar axis 8. 68 µm equatorial diameter. Based of pollen shapes, three pollen types have been recorded; mostly prolate (P/E ratio 1.17 to 1.56) and subprolate (P/E 1.15 to 1.31) while prolate-spheroidal (P/E ratio 1.11 only in O. waltonii. However, based on colpi and polarity two basic types are recognized. Type-I tri-syncolporate and heteropolar (in five species i.e., O. confertum, O. dicroanthum, O. hispida, O. limantneumand O. paniculatum) and Type-II tri-colporate and isopolar (in 10 species (O. exertum, O. fistulosum, O. glomeratum, O. hookerivar.hirsutum, O. hookerivarlongiflora, O. maaikangense, O. multiramosum, O. sinicum, O. waddellii, and O. waltonii).Ornamented aperture membrane and lolongateora was uniformly observed among all studied taxa. However, three types of exine ornamentation (echinate, rugulate and rugulate-echiante) were observed. All these characters (quantitative and qualitative) are analyzed numerically and discussed based on taxonomical concepts. The present palynological data provides new information about pollen morphology of all Onosma species; especially O. glomeratumand O. multiramosum O. hookerivar. hirsutum, O. hookerivar. longiflorum. The present study can be useful to analyze the pollen variation within Onosma and to correlate the pollen data with the taxonomy of the genus.

Keywords - No

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POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE FAMILY GENTIANACEAE AND ITS TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR

Authors : AnjumPerveen, Muhammad Qaiser

Abstract - Pollen morphology of 40 species belonging to 12 genera of family Gentianaceae i.e. Alliopsis, Aloitis, Centaurium, Ciminalis, Comastoma, Enicostemma, Gentianodes, Halenia, Jaeschkea, Lomatogonium, Qaisera, Swertia from Pakistan have been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually symmetrical, or prolate spheroidal or oblate-spheroidal, spheroidal and, tricolporate, rarely tetra colporate, colpus length 15- 25µm, mesocolpium 15-24 µm, apocolpium 8-15µm. Tectum striate, striate-perforate, straito reticulate, reticulate, rugulate-reticulate, foveolate or somewhere . Family Gentianaceae is eurypalynous in nature. Therefore, some variations are found in sculptures of some genera and somewhere in polar axis or equatorial diameter. On the basis of exine ornamentation and pollen shape family is divided in to four pollen types. Present investigation is significantly useful for the delimitation of taxa at generic and specific level.

Keywords - No

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TWO DECADES WITH FUNGI OF PAKISTAN

Authors : Abdul Nasir Khalid

Abstract - Pakistan is a country with diverse climate, topography, vegetation and forest types. These factors strongly support occurrence of a large number as well as diverse types of fungi. During the past two decades, we have been able to explore different parts of the country including deserts of Cholistan, Plains of Punjab, some parts of Himalayas and Hindukush, Alpine and Sub-alpine parts of KP, some valleys of AJ & K, Fairy Meadows and Deosai plains of GilgitBaltistan and Junipers of Ziarat. Our findings demonstrate that diversity of fungi across these plains and forests, valleys and meadows is better explored and known than the previous. A dedicated team of students and researchers has played a key role in exploration of Mushrooms, Rusts, Smuts, Ascomycetes and Lichens. Moreover, Research grants from various funding agencies like University of the Punjab, HEC and PSF has helped a lot to broaden the scope of our mycological research and, hence we have added more than 60 new fungal taxa to science as well as hundreds of new records to the list of Fungi of Pakistan. During coming decades, the number of taxa to be reported as new to science is estimated to be double than known today from Pakistan. However, the recent work is preliminary one, concerning the diversity of fungi in Pakistan and more efforts and trained researchers are required to explore the hidden treasure of fungi of the country.

Keywords - No

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ANALYSIS OF POPULATION STRUCTURE AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

Authors : Israr Ahmad, Habib Ahmad, Inamullah, Sami Ullah Khan, Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Ishtiaq Ahmad

Abstract - Bread wheat (Triticumaestivum; 2n=6x=42; AABBDD) having a genome size of 17 Gb is the major staple food of Pakistan. Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. In the present research hundred bread wheatgenotypes were evaluated. A total of 102 molecular markers (SSR) out of 150 were found to be polymorphic. The highest marker diversity (66%) was showed by Xwmc 798, Xbarc 147, Xgwm 60, Xgwm 469, Xgwm 471 followed by Xbarc 154 (65%), Xgwm 372 (65%), Xwmc 52 (65%), VRN AF (65%) Xbarc 172 (64%), Xgwm 261 (64%) while the lowest diversity (9%) was found in Xbarc137. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of the markers was also calculated in the range of 0.03 – 0.59. The highest PIC value was confirmed in Xgwm 471(0.59), Xbarc 147 (0.59) and the lowest (0.03) was recorded in Xwmc 606. Genotypic data of 102 SSR markers was applied across the whole genome of wheat for analysis of population structure. An admixture model with correlated allele frequencies for determination of population structure was used. The analysis of population structure was accomplished using structure software. Bar plot shows all the hundred genotypes are admixed due to complex and long history of evolution. All the hundred genotypes showed 100% admix with no purity.

Keywords - No

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ETHNOMEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF WILD EDIBLE FRUITS PLANTS OF MIANDAM VALLEY, SWAT.

Authors : Ajmal Iqbal, Mehboob Ur Rahman, Abdul Razzaq, Mohammad Nisar

Abstract - The present study aims to document the ethnomedicial knowledge & conservation status of wild edible fruits plants of Miandam Valley, Swat. A total of 37 wild edible fruits plants belonging to 17 families and 25 genera were recorded. Rosaceae was the largest families with 12 species followed by Moraceae with 4 species. The fruits plants comprise of 15 (40.5%) trees, 17 (45.9%) shrubs, 4 (10.8%) herbs, 1 (2.7%) climbers. In the study area, knowledge related to the local uses of medicinal plants is totally restricted to the elder members of the community. The younger generation is unaware of the local uses. These plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments such as: as diuretic, astringent, antidiarrheal, stomachic, anthelmintic, nerves tonic & heart tonic. Conservation study revealed that most of plant species are threatened in the research area due to habitat loss, deforestation, overpopulation, over grazing, unsustainable uses of medicinal plants and establishment of invasive species. Therefore, there is acute need to protect and conserve the wild edible fruits of Miandam valley.

Keywords - No

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EVALUATION OF YIELD PERFORMANCE OF OYSTER MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS AND PLEUROTUS SAPIDUS) ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES IN SWAT, PAKISTAN

Authors : Ishtiaq Ahmad, Siraj Ahmad, Hazrat Sher, Khan Muhammad, Syed Sharifullah, Taj Muhammad,Numan Fazal

Abstract - Mushroom forms a group of conspicuous fungi which nourishes on enzymatic processing of various organic materials such as cellulose and starch. Current study was planned to evaluate the efficiency of different mushroom strains viz; Pleurotusostreatus (P1) and P. sapidus (P6) on different locally available agricultural bi-products viz; wheat straw (W) and rice straw (R). The experiments were conducted in two different locations viz; Saidu Sharif Swat and Asharay village Tehsil Matta Swat. A total of sixty compost bags including 15 bags each of WP1, WP6, RP1 and RP6 for P. ostreatus-inoculated in wheat straw, P. sapidus-inoculated in wheat straw, P. ostreatus-inoculated in rice straw and P. sapidus-inoculated in rice straw, respectively, were prepared on April 22, 2017. Spawn running was initiated at different intervals in different bags. RP1, RP6 and WP6 showed good spawn running that is more than 30% in 7, 5 and 6 bags respectively in the earliest days, whereas, no spawn run was observed in WPI . Maximum yield 543 gm for 52 fruit bodies was observed in RP1 with cap size ranging from 3.5 – 9 cm and stem size ranging from 0.5 – 2.5 cm. It is concluded from the current study that different strains of Oyster yields significantly very different when grown on different substrates and in different months of the year. Rice straw ascertains its best candidacy as compost for best yield of mushrooms (Pleurotus species) in summer.

Keywords - No

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BRYOPHYTE DIVERSITY IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN-PAKISTAN

Authors : Jan Alam

Abstract - This paper deals with the floristic diversity of the bryophyte group found in the Gilgit-Baltistan province, Pakistan. Current field investigations coupled with previous efforts collectively reveal 173 species, 3 subspecies, 13 varieties and 1 forma. These taxa distributed in 76 genera and 26 families. Mosses (bryophyta) are dominant with167species (96.53%). Growth form-wise, acrocarpic mosses prevail with128 species (73.98%). Family-wise, Pottiaceae is the largest with 13 genera and 35 species, followed by Barchytheciaceae(4 genera; 23 spp.) and Grimmiaceae (2 genera; 17spp.). In the remaining families 1-16 species recorded each. For genera, Grimmia Hedwig and Orthotrichum Hedwig lead with 13 species each,BrachytheciumSchimper and Bryum Hedwig come to next with 14 and 11 species respectively. Maximum species found to occur at elevation between 2500-3500m. Generic index is 2.5. Further field exploration particularly in Upper Hunza, Ghizar district, Diamar district (Darel and Tangeer) and Baltistan (Kharmang, Deosai) are important in this connection.

Keywords - No

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PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF GIRBAND HILLS, UC KALAKALAY KABAL SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN.

Authors : Siraj Ahmad, Muhammad Ilyas, Zia UlHaq, Ishtiaq Ahmad

Abstract - Phytosociological study was conducted during autumn 2010 in Girband hills, UC Kalakalay Swat. The altitude of the area varies from 900 m to 1800 m from mean sea level. The survey of the investigated area revealed 68 species, which belong to 43 families. Family Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Polygoniaceae, Papilionaceae and Moraceae were the important families in the study area. Based on the similarity index, six plants communities were established in the investigated area; 1) Dodonaea-Cynodon-Plectranthes community 2) Aristida-Dodonaea- Plectranthes community 3) Pinus-Plectranthes-Ajuga community 4) Nirium-Polygonum-Rumex community 5) Berberis-ArtemesiaPinus community and 6) Artemesia-Pinus-Aristida community. The soil of the investigated area ranges from silt loam to sandy loam. The pH value ranged from 7.4 to 7.8. Organic matter ranged from 1.38% to 3.17%. CaCO3 was 0.75% to9.25%. Nitrogen was 0.069% to 0.159%. Potassium was 85ppm to238ppm. Phosphorous content varied from 1.74 ppm to 10.95 ppm. Habit of the plants shows that herbs were dominant in the area, followed by shrubs and trees. The climbers were very rarely found. Lamiaceae and Poaceae were the dominant families with 13.2% and 10.2% respectively, followed by Asteraceae and Rosaceae with 7.35% and 4.4% respectively. Index of similarity of common species ranged from 11.0% to 41%.

Keywords - No

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FOLK MEDICINE OF TEHSIL KABAL, SWAT

Authors : iraj Ahmad1 Muhammad Ilyas2Murad Khan1, Ishtiaq Ahmad*1

Abstract - An ethno botanical survey on the medicinal plants was conducted during the summer 2010 in various part of U/C Kala Kaly. The study revealed 71 Species belonging to 40 families of ethno medicinal importance. Out of these 71, there are 2 species belonging to Pteridophytes from Pteridaceae and Equistaceae. Only 1 species belong to Pinaceae in Gymnosperm and 1 species to fungi. The remaining 67 species belong to Angiosperms in which 64 are dicot and 2 are monocot belonging to 37 families in which the largest family is Lamiaceae having 8 Species following by Asteraceae having 5 Species which is followed by Rhamnaceae and Polygoniaceae having 3 species each. Other families including Moraceae, Myrisinaceae, Celastraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Verbenaceae, Urticeae, fagaceae, Buxaceae, have only one or two species each. These plants have been used by the native people as medicinal and crude drugs. The description of each species, its local names and diseases cured by it has been provided. The people collect these species for domestic use. Some species are threatened because of collection by the native or dwellers of the near cities through cutting, overgrazing and unauthorized collection, from this survey it is obvious that the people of the hilly area have very good and vast knowledge about medicinal Plants

Keywords - No

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MEDICINAL PLANTS STATUS OF TERICH VALLEY, DISTRICT CHITRAL, KP

Authors : AkhtarZaman, LalBadshah

Abstract - Terich valley in district Chitral is very less explored for ethnobotanical studies. Therefore the study has been conducted for the documentation of ethnobotanical data and exploration of floristic diversity. Field surveys were carried out throughout the valley to collect ethnobotanical data (traditional use of plants, local name, plant parts used, medicinal value). It was found that 52 medicinal plants belonging to 47 genera and 31 families were used locally for different ailments and other purposes. Rosaceae was a leading family having 6 medicinal plants, followed by Asteraceae with four species. Chenopodiacae, Papilionaceae, Lamiaceae and Umbilliferae have three species each. The remaining families are represented by two and one species each.They are used by the local peoples for the treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, dysentery, male and female sexual diseases, cardiovascular diseases, headache, asthma, toothache, diabetes, skin disease.

Keywords - No

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SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF THE COMPLEX GENUS EUPHORBIA L. FROM SWAT

Authors : ZahidUllah, ShifaBibi, Ahmad Ali, Hassan Sher, NaveedAlam,HamayunShaheen

Abstract - Euphorbia L. is the second largest genus of flowering plants with more than 2000 species. The project was aimed to study the detailed morphology, morphometrics, leaf epidermal microscopic characters and pollen grains morphology of local leafy spurges Euphorbia L. The study reported 14 species including 10 wild and 4 cultivated species of which 2 were succulent shrubs and the rest were annual or perennial herbs. Inflorescence was cyathium consist of variously shaped and coloured involucre and glands. Shape of the glands was mostly ovate or round and varies in color, number and size. Cyathia usually pedunculate, they may be aggregated or may be single. Fruit dehiscent, tricarpillary mostly smooth and round. Morphometric analysis of 46 morphological characters and character states were done in statistical packages of Minitab and SPSS and resulted into two well resolved clusters. Cluster I contains mostly annual, spring growing species with erect habit, green involucral glands and obscure or no bracts. Cluster II is represented by perennial or annual plants with prostrate habit and mostly brightly colored and well developed bracts. Morphometric characters were found useful and in congruence with molecular data for species relationship and classification. Ordinary epidermal cells of the species ranges from polygonal to irregular or quadrangular, 22.5-127.5µm long. Anomocyticstomata was the most common type. Size of stomata ranged from 8.5-41µm. Size of stomatal pore ranged from 5-17.5µm. Various types of trichomes were observed including glandular, non-glandular, multicellular and uniseriate. Size of trichomes ranged from 22.5-750µm. Pollen grains of the species are tricolpate to tricolporate, isopolar and radially symmetrical. In polar view pollen grains were mostly circular to circular lobate to semiangular and inter subangular. Size of pollen grains in polar view ranged from 17.5-50µm and in equatorial view ranged from 15-50µm. Micro reticulate ornamentation was observed in 5 species, while coarsely reticulate ornamentation was present in 2 species. Tectate perforate and finely reticulate were present in the remaining species. Exine thickness ranged from 0.5-7.5µm. It was concluded that macromorphology, leaf micromorphology and pollen morphology when combined together gives clearer picture of the interspecific relationship.

Keywords - No

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DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF INVASIVE ALIAN PLANTS IN SUB TROPICAL VEGETATION ZONE OF MUZAFFARABAD

Authors : HamayunShaheen, AmmaraBatool, Tariq Habib, Syeda Fatima Gillani,Shamshad Aziz

Abstract - Invasive alien species are nonnative species that have arrived outside their natural range alter the vegetation structure by displacing native flora and deteriorating changes in the environment. The present study was conducted in the sub-tropical vegetation stands in the sub urban areas of Muzaffarabad city to investigate the diversity and distribution of invasive species and their impact on the native vegetation. The project was including assessment of the factors responsible for spread and establishment of invasive species. Nine sites including 6 undisturbed and 3 disturbed were selected to study the impact of invasive species on native vegetation. Geographical characters of the sites were recorded including slope, aspect and elevation. Phytosociological parameters were calculated following standard protocols. The average value of Simpsons diversity was calculated as 0.96; Shannons diversity as 2.61; species richness as 1.99; species evenness as 0.71; whereas the average value of maturity index was found to be 24.09. A total of 121 plant species represented by 108 genera belonging to 58 families was recorded from the study area. Out of these, 43 species belonging to 25 families and 41 genera were recorded as Invasive alien. Dominant families included Asteraceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. The invasive aliens dominating the area included Partheniumhysterophorus with an average importance value of (11.77) followed by Lantana camara (10.59), Xanthium strumarium (9.92), Ailanthus aItissima (8.59), Cannabis sativa (7.78), Broussonetiapapyrifera (7.28), Arundodonax (6.05) and Sorghum halepense (3.11). Road construction and land slide disturbances were identified as the major factors responsible for the spread of invasive aliens in the area. The percentage of invasive alien was recorded high at the 3 disturbed sites as 43.24, 31.81, and 34.04% respectively. It was concluded that a better management is needed for early detection to discourage introduction of invasive alien species with integrated monitoring.

Keywords - No

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FUELWOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND ITS IMPACT ON FOREST ECOSYSTEM IN BIHA VALLEY SWAT PAKISTAN

Authors : Rahman Ali Khan, Husna Ali Shah, ZahidUllah, NaveedAlam, HamayunShaheen, Ahmad Ali, Hassan Sher

Abstract - Fuelwood is the primary energy source for cooking and heating in mountainous valleys in rural areas in developing countries. The present study analyzed the fuelwood consumption pattern in Biha valley Swat Pakistan. Fuelwood and alternative energy sources like LPG, cattle dung and maize cobs consumption pattern was studied in seventeen mountainous villages along altitudinal, seasonal, species wise and household gradients. A total of 30 fuelwood species in 16 families including 25 trees and 5 shrubs were utilized by the local people in the valley. Rosaceae, Pinaceae and Fagaceae contributed most important and preferred fuel species. Biha valley was divided into two zones i-e zone-I, ranged from 1400 to 2000m asl, and zone-II at higher altitudes 2000 to 3500m asl. Households in each village were categorized into small, medium and large for studying the consumption of fuelwood by each sample household in each village. Questionnaires consisting of a mixture of open and close ended questions were administered in face-to-face interviews conducted in the local language. The questionnaire also consist of information about the fuelwood species and which fuelwood species are best for use in the area. The quantity of fuelwood consumption was measured over a period of 24 h using a weight survey method. Maximum fuelwood consumption per household on winter sunny day was observed in Chatikal (77.5 kg/day), while minimum values for this category were found in Gwalerai (20.5 kg/day). On a village wise basis maximum fuelwood consumption of 808 kg, per day on winter sunny day was found in Pakanai and minimum at Jumnarai (357 kg). On a rainy winter day maximum fuelwood consumption per household was seen at Chatikal (104.5 kg/day) and minimum at Gwalerai (60.1 kg/day). In the same season group per village values were found maximum at Biha (1052 kg/day) and minimum at Shengartan (519 kg/day). On a sunny winter day maximum fuelwood consumption per capita/day was determined at Qala (6 kg/day), in Beloo (5.9 kg/day), Pezoo and KozSwatai (5.5 kg/day), and minimum at Bar Swatai (3.1 kg/day), and Berabroo and Chatikal (3.3 kg/day). In the same season on rainy day maximum fuelwood consumption per capita/day was observed at Qala (7.6 kg/day, and minimum at Bar Swatai (3.8 kg/day), and Berabroo and Chatikal (4.4 kg/day). On summer day maximum fuelwood consumption per capita/day was greater at Pezoo (2.5 kg/day), and minimum at Nalkot (1.2 kg/day).

Keywords - No

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ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND SUSTAINABILITY ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS HARVESTING IN SWAT, KPK PAKISTAN

Authors : Hazrat Bilal, Muhammad IbrarShinwari, MianAbdalSaeed, Hassan Sher

Abstract - Environmental and Ecological stability has been compromised in many countries as a result of rising demand and commercial exploitation of medicinal plants. The Un-sustainable harvesting has substantially affected the survival of medicinal plant species and hence has a direct impact on the people dependent on them. The un-controlled urbanization and soaring demand has created a dynamic trade of medicinal plants in District Swat, but the ecological effects of this trade had not been studied yet. To find out the consequences of commercial harvest, we carried out a market survey and observed commercial harvesters in the forest to find the signs of over or destructive harvesting. Three perspectives: the herbal market, the collectors and the post-harvest survival of these medicinal plants to analyze our results. Among 70 commercial species, more than half was harvested exclusively from the wild which resulted in considerable decline of resources in the wild. Very few were found to be cultivated. Thus our three-way analysis allowed us to differentiate between species having no sustainability problems (cultivated, abundant, limited market value, domesticated, disturbance species or surviving harvest) and species with conservation priorities. This study demonstrates that the amplified commercialization of these medicinal plants due to urbanization is playing a vital role in the decline of resources and species loss. The market value of a medicinal plant was also found to have a considerable impact on the survival of plant species (i.e. in case of Trillium guaninum). With its increasing population density and market demand of these herbal species, District Swat should be considered priority zone to promote sustainable medicinal plant extraction.

Keywords - No

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WARMING PROJECTION IN TWENTIETH CENTURY ENHANCED GROWTH OF DEODAR TREES IN HINDUKUSH RANGE

Authors : Muhammad Wahab, Moinuddin Ahmed, FayazAsad,GulnazParveen

Abstract - Consequences of global warming on trees life have got great attention in last few decades. A number of studies have reported considerable growth changes in diverse forests types over twentieth century in some areas of the world. Increased have been recorded in smaller dbh trees while severe declines have been documented in larger dbh trees in those areas that experiencing climatic extremes. However, major growth changes of long lived individual trees during past few centuries are not yet well examined in Hindu Kush range. Therefore, we conduct this study in older trees of deodar in three mature forests in northern Pakistan those are located in same range. Beside this range, this tree species is also endemic to Himalaya over mid elevations sites. Here, we report a widespread increase in radial growth of 81-91 % trees over twentieth century in all three deodar forests and we also document a major growth decline in nineteenth century with 53-94%. However, the magnitude and timing of trees decline were higher in upper elevation forests. Growth increased started earlier in middle elevation forest while growth rise started in trees of upper elevation forest later as compare to other forests. Our results are well matching with already reconstructed regional and northern hemispheric palaeoclimate in term of temperature extremes. The growth of majority trees declined in 19th century due to cooling epoch when mountain glaciers expanded to their greatest extent till 1850 A.D during little ice age. After that episode, growth of majority trees enhanced during late twentieth century in warming spell. Our results demonstrate that this certain species is showing great steadiness in case of proceeding global warming scenario. However, extensive study is needed to access this argument clearly.

Keywords - No

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FLORISTIC DIVERSITY, ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL EVALUATION OF AROMATIC PLANTS OF LAMIACEAE IN MASTUJ, PAKISTAN

Authors : Syed Mukaram Shah

Abstract - Ecological and ethnobotanical investigation revealed that there were 10 aromatic plant species belonged to Lamiaceae. The species were distributed into 5 genera and the dominant genus was Nepeta with 3 species. Biological spectrum represented that the leading life-form class was geophytes (5 spp.), followed by Therophytes (3 spp.) and Hemicryptophytes (2 spp.). The major leaf-sizes included nanophylls, microphylls and mesophylls. All the recorded plants have economic values and are utilized by the local inhabitants for their various daily domestic uses such as medicinal and condiments.Large scale cultivation and commercialization of these high valued aromatic plant species can be used as a source of income generation and strengthen the economic status of the poor local people of this remote area.Selection of high yielding certified seeds, proper irrigation, use of organic fertilizers and weeding are recommended for more productivity of these plant species.

Keywords - Aromatic plants, Medicinal, Ecology, Mastuj

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GRASS DIVERSITY IN THE HISTORICAL KALASH VALLEY, DISTRICT CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH RANGE, PAKISTAN

Authors : FazalHadi* and Muhammad Ibrar

Abstract - Pakistan is naturally gifted with diverse flora and altitudinal variation from sea level upto more than 8000 m height. Kalash valley is situated in district Chitral and comprises of three sub valleys viz: Bumburet, Rumbor and Birir. The valley is famous due to its inhabitants that are considered to be the descendants of Alexander the Great. No floristic information is available for the valley, therefore the present study was carried out to enlist the grass flora of the valley, their ecological characteristics and ethnobotanical uses. A total of 36 grass species belonging to 29 genera were identified. Poawas the dominant genus with 4 (11.11%) species followed by Avena, Bromus, Hordeumand Loliumrepresented by 2 (5.55%) species each. The remaining genera had one species each. Ecological characteristics revealed that 23 (63.89%) species were rarely occurring, 9 (25%) were common and 4 (11.11%) species were abundantly occurring in the valley. Life form spectra showed that therophytes were dominant with 24 (66.67%) species followed by hemicryptophytes with 8 (22.22%) species, chamaephytes 3 (8.33%) and geophytes had one (2.78%) species. Leaf size spectra revealed that 26 (72.22%) species were nanophylls, 4 (11.11%) were microphylls and 3 (8.33%) were mesophylls. 27 (75%) species were growing on dry places and 9 (25%) were growing on wet soils. Similarly, 33 (91.67%) were fodder species, 3 (11.11%) were food species and 2 (5.55%) species were used for thatching purposes in the valley. The present information will be useful for further ecological and biological researches on the grasses in this dry temperate region of Pakistan.

Keywords - Grasses, ecological and ethnobotanical characteristics, Kalash valley, district Chitral, Pakistan

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CONSERVATION THREATS TO TRADE POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS DIVERSITY INMOIST TEMPERATE HIMALAYAS PAKISTAN – A CRITICAL REVIEW

Authors : Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari 1& Maryum Ibrar Shinwari2

Abstract - The Moist Temperate Himalayan region is an important ecological zone of Pakistan; deserve specific attention to the conservation of environment and the sustainable development of natural resources. During the last century, the area has been subjected to major structural changes leading to a decrease of about 50% of the potential forest area. The decrease in forest cover, combined with major changes in community structure has been responsible for the decline of indigenous medicinal plants resources. Three national parks in this region; Margalla Hills National Park, Ayubia National Park and MuchiaraNatinal Park have been identified as priority areas to be observed for medicinal plant conservation threats. The study was aimed to analyze and compare present status and diversity of indigenous trade potential medicinal plants of these three important national parks by adopting predefined questionnaires. The traded indigenous species have been subjected through IUCN criterion for evaluation of their conservation status. As a result, in Margalla Hills National Park, out of 26 traded indigenous medicinal plants, 3 species declared as vulnerable to harvesting include Asparagus adscendens, Berberis lyceum and Viola canescens. In Ayubia National Park out of 44 traded species 11 medicinal plants including Juglansregia, Taxuswallichiana, Berberis lyceum, Asparagus adscendens, Atropaacuminata, Colchicum luteum, Dioscoreadeltoidea, Podophyllumhexandrum, Rheum australe, Saussureacostus and Valerianajatamansi have been found vulnerable to harvesting. In Muchiyara national park, out of 42 traded indigenous medicinal plants, 12 plant species Andranchnecordifolia, Anemone falconeri, Anemone tetrasepala,,Atropa acuminate, Fraxinushookeri, Gentianakurroo, Morchellaesculenta, Morinacoulteriana, Paeoniaemodi, Potentillasericophylla, Taxuswallichiana, and Thelypteris dentate have been found under high stress.

Keywords - Medicinal Plants, Conservation, Moist Temperate Himalayas

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BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF BULK COUNTERPART OF AJUGA BRACTEOSA INTO GOLD NANOPARTICLES

Authors : Sumaira Shah1, Srajud Din2

Abstract - Development of nanoparticles using plants material is one of the important areas of research in nanotechnology. In present research work gold nanoparticles of Ajugabracteosa (A. bracteosa) were synthesized at room temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-rays diffraction analysis (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy which gives a characteristic peak at 551 nm. SEM and TEM analysis shows all nanoparticles are spherical in shape with grain size about 15 nm while SEM showed average particle size 46nm due to aggregation of particles. The presence of elemental gold was confirmed by EDX analysis while the XRD results clearly showed crystalline nature of newly synthesized gold nanoarticles. Different secondary metabolites present in plant extract responsible for reduction of metallic gold are detected by FTIR anaylsis. FTIR spectroscopy reported that lipids and fatty acid are responsible for reduction and stabilization of reaction medium. For the first time it is reported that lipids can reduce metallic gold by chapping on surface of gold. The present work confirmed that A. bracteosa already hold therapeutic promise and its conversion from bulk counter material to nanoparticles will be very helpful for medicinal application.

Keywords - AjugaBracteosa, synthesis, characterizations.

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FLORISTIC EVALUATION AND ECOLOGICAL PHYSIOGNOMIES OF PLANTS RESOURCES OF MANDAN, DISTRICT BANNU

Authors : TajYousaf Khan, LalBadshah

Abstract - A study was conducted to assess the floristic composition of Mandan District Bannu during 2015-16. The floristic diversity consisted of 99 species belonging to 37 families. On the basis of species diversity, poaceae and solanaceae was dominant each with 9 species followed by asteraceae and fabaceae with 8 species each. Brassicaceae with 6 species, Papilionaceae with 5 species were the next diverse group. Apiaceae and euphorbiaceae each had 4 Species. Similarly chenopodiaceae, cucurbitaceae, moraceae, plantaginaceae, rutaceae and zygophyllceae possessed 3 species each. The rest of the families had either 2 species or less than that. Biological spectrum reflected that therophytes with 54 species (54.54%) followed by microphenrophytes with 16 species (16.16%) were the dominant life form classes. Himocryptophytes with 10 species (10.10%) and geophytes with 8 species (8.08%) were next abundant classes. Nanophanerophytes with 5 species (5.05%) and cheamophytes with 6 species (6.06%) were also present. The leaf size spectrum revealed that nanophyll with 30 species (30.30%) and microphyll with 25 species (25.25%) were dominating the flora. Likewise mesophylls with 21 species (21.21%), leptophyllswith 19 species (119.19%), and megaphyllswith 4 specie (4.04%) were of less concern due to the semiarid climatic nature area.

Keywords - No

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ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISM IN PISUM SATIVUM USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

Authors : Ajmal Iqbal1, Abdul Razzaq2, Ahmad Ali3 and Mohammad Nisar1*

Abstract - Twenty advanced lines of Pisumsativum were developed through single seed descent (SSD) method from the cross Falloner/11760-3ER. The control lines for comparative performance were Climex (PL-22) and local cultivar (PL-21). The genetic structure and diversity of these novel combinations was analyzed using 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 85 SSR markers only 12 showed polymorphism and total 24 alleles were detected with an average of 2 alleles per SSR locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values of SSR markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.47 with an average of 0.33. Nei’s genetic distance between lines ranged from 0.10 to 0.92. The minimum genetic polymorphism (0.92) was found between 3 pairs of lines. While the maximum genetic polymorphism (0.10) was found between 2 pairs.

Keywords - Genetic polymorphism, Multivariate analysis, Pea lines, SSR markers

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ANALYSIS OF FROST RESISTANCE OF SUNFLOWER VARIETIES BY COMPARING FREEZING SURVIVAL OF WHOLE PLANTS AND THE HYGROSCOPICITY OF MATURE SEEDS

Authors : Amin ullah Jan1*, Fazal Hadi2,Ajmal Iqbal3 and Abdul Razzaq4

Abstract - The role of Potassium (KNO3), Zinc (ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in hygroscopicity was investigated in different sunflower varieties. Eight varieties (Rising sun, SMH-0907, Ausigold-7, SMH-0939, US-444, Hysun-33, SMH-0917 and HS-K6) were analyzed for hygroscopicity along with other metabolites. Plants were grown in Glass house and foliar sprays of potassium (50 ppm of KNO3), zinc (30ppm of ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid (20 ppm of GA3) were applied at three doses with an interval of five days. Potassium treatment significantly increased hygroscopicity in seed and survival percentage after freezing in sunflower plants followed by zinc and gibberellic acid. The application of potassium significantly enhanced biosynthesis of free proline, total phenolic and soluble protein. Zinc treatment significantly increased total carbohydrate content in sunflower varieties as compared to control plants. Hygroscopicity showed significant correlation with free proline R2 = 0.621*, total phenolic (R2 = 0.907***), total carbohydrates content (R2 = 0.673*) and soluble protein (R2 = 0.708**). It is concluded that potassium and zinc play key role in the enhancement of hygroscopicity in sunflower seeds. Further study is recommended to find the effect of these treatments on specific gene expression.

Keywords - Sunflower, Hygroscopicity,Proline, Phenolic, total carbohydrates and soluble protein.

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VEGETATION STURCUTRE AND SPECIE DIVRERISTY OF TEMPERATE FOREST OF LASS DANNA, BAGH, AZAD KASHMIR ANALYSED THROUGH ORDINATION TECHNIQUES.

Authors : Muhammad Shoaib Amjad1, Muhammad Ilyas2, Israr Ahmad1, Samiullah Kahn1abdul Razzaq And Shujaul Mulk Khan3

Abstract - The phytosociological survey of moist temperate forests of Lass Danna hills, District Bagh Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted during 2016-2017. Quadrat method was used for sampling vegetation in three layer viz herb, shrub and tree. The flora comprised of 128 plant species distributed among 105 genera and 46 families. Based on importance value elven plant communities were recognized which were grouped in to three plant association using cluster analysis and Detrended correspondence analysis viz. Gallium-Adiantum-Frageria association,Pinus-Sarcococca-Poa association, Abies-Vibernum-Cynodon association Diversity was high at middle elevation and low at upper and lower altitude. Richness was negatively correlated with altitude where as evenness and equitability has little or no influence of altitude. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that Altitude, phosphorous, E.C and pH play major role in defining distribution pattern of plant species. The investigated forests are disturbed with low species diversity and poor regeneration potential. Therefore, immediate conservation measures along with participation of local community are recommended.

Keywords - Lass Danna, vegetation, Richness, Diversity, DCA and CCA

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QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLANTS CONSUMPTION AMONG THE PEOPLES OF SOME RURAL AREAS OF DISTRICT CHARSADDA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

Authors : Muhammad Imran, Imtiaz Ahmad*, Sumaira Shah, Hina Gul And Abdul Razzaq

Abstract - Plants are considered as the main source of human affirmations, consequently in the developing countries the peoples of rustic zones are reliant on their usage for numerous purposes viz., for traditional medicine, building materials, timber, fuel, food and others. The present study was conducted to document the uses of flora of District Charsadda. Different sites of District Charsadda were selected and the data were collected about the usage of the plants during different seasons in the years 2016-2017. The results of the study revealed that the people of the area were dependent overthe plants for different persposes. A total of 46 plants belongs to 31 families were collected. Among the collected species 54% were herbs,2.15% shrubs, and 43.48% were trees. The recorded data revealed that a total of 33% plants have medicinal values. The highest use value (UV) were found for Menthaspicata(3.70), followed byCannabis Sativa(2.65),Menthalongifolia(2.40), Acaciamodesta(2.20),Daturastramonium(2.10)andPinusroxburghii(2.00)respectively. The highest frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency (RFC) citation were recorded for Triticumaestivumi.e. 19.00 and 0.95 respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient value was recorded as 0.611 amongst used value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC) which means both have positive strong correlations.

Keywords - Ethnobotany; relative frequency citation, used value, correlation coefficient.

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FUNGAL DIVERSITY OF THE MARBLE WASTE POLLUTED ECOSYSTEM IN THE PHYLOGENETIC PERSPECTIVES

Authors : Zeeshan Ahmad1, ShujaulMulk Khan1 Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali2,Noureen Fatima2And MajidIqbal1

Abstract - The role of surrounding environment contributed in emergence and spread of resistant microorganism to various polluted ecosystem. This study evaluated the isolation, characterization, molecular identification and phylogeny of fungal diversity collected from marble waste polluted ecosystem. A total of 15 factories at a distance of 3- 4 Km were randomly selected during in month of July and August, 2016. Overall 45 samples were collected (2 each water sample and one control sample for each industry). Malt extract agar media was used for fungus growth and isolation of pure colonies. The obtained colonies were observed via digital colony observer. All the fungal isolates were characterized via Lacto-phenol cotton blue stain for anatomical examination. For further identification ITS-rDNA markers and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. The preliminary results identified a total of 15 pure fungal isolates. Their molecular identification and phylogeny resulted Aspergillussydowii, Aspergillusbrasilensi, Aspergillusphoenicis, Fusariumpetrolilum, Auerobasidiumpullulans, Altemariaaltemata and Curvulariaaeria fungal species from marble wastewater polluted ecosystem. Morphologically most of these strains comprehended aseptate hyphae and black, brown, green, white to dark green colors. Whereas, anatomically these strains ranges from cylindrical to round, hyaline in lacto-phenol blue, thick to thin walled, smooth to ornamented surface with sharp scale and fusoid to ellipsoid in shape. These microbial strains will provide a frame work for future investigation with special reverences to phytoremediation of marble waste polluted ecosystem.

Keywords - Molecular identification, phylogeny, ITS-rDNA

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SYSTEMATIC AND MEDICINAL USES OF FERN DIVERSITY IN SWAT VALLEY, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

Authors : Usman Ali* Abdur Rashid AndAbdlrrazzaq

Abstract - In this taxonomic study of ferns of Swat, a total of 46 species were recorded.These were distributed among 22 genera and 9 families. Family Dryopteridaceae was the largest one consisting of 5 (28.78%) genera and 16 (34.04%) species. Athyriaceae was consisted of 2 (11.12%) genera and 7 (17.02%) species, followed by family Aspliniaceae with 1 (1.56%) genus and 7 (14.89%) species. The Pteridaceae had 4 (22.23%) genera and 5 (10.63%) species. Family Thelypteridaceae was comprised of 2 (11.12%) genera and 4 (8.15%) species, followed by familyAdiantaceae having 1 (1.56%) genus and 3 (6.38%) species. The familyEquisetaceae was comprised of 1 (1.56%) genus and 2 (14.89%) species. Family Marsiliaceae and Selaginellaceae both were monotypic families.Asplenium was the largest genus and represented by 8 (17.02%)species, followed by Dryopteris having 7(14.89%) species, Athyrium was comprising of 6 (12.70%) species, Polystichum with 5(10.63%) species, Adiantum was resented by 3(6.38%) species, Cystopteris, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium , Pteris and Thelypteris were represented by 2(4.25%) species each. Chielanthes, Cyrtomium, Diplazium, Gymnocarpium, Onychium, Pteridium and Selagenilla were the genera which were consisted of only 1 (2.12%)species each. Out of 46 ferns species 10 species were reported to have ethnobotanical uses in the area. The hair falling, diarrhea, wounds, fever, cough, internal body burning, skin diseases, chest affection, scorpion bite, cold, kidney diseases, eye swelling, menstrual disorders, hypertension, microbial diseases, enemia, bone fractures, hepatitis and stomatch problems were treated with Adiantumsps., Aspleniumtrichomanes, Equisetum spp., Dryopterisodontoloma, Onychium and Pteris species. Dryopterisodontoloma was recorded to use as vegetable.

Keywords - Ferns, Taxonomic study, Athyriaceae, ethnobotanical potential, enemia, eye swelling.

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ADDITION TO THE BOLETOID MUSHROOMS OF PAKISTAN

Authors : Hamad Ur Rehman1*, SadiqUllah1, Muhammad Fiaz1, Abdul Nasir Khalid2, Habib Ahmad2

Abstract - The boletes (Agaricomycotina) are an artificial group of fungi traditionally united by a “boletoid” habit: a combination of having fleshy, pileate–stipitatesporocarps with a tubular–poroidhymenophore and nearly all growing on the ground near trees. Temperate forests in district Shangla are rich in fungal biodiversity and have numerous sites which are rich in boletoid fungi. These sites were explored for sporocarp collection and specimen were photographed and vouchered from all the sampling sites. Field notes were taken for the important macroscopic characters like color, shape and texture of the fresh specimens. For measurement of microscopic characters like basidiospores, basidia, cystidia, terminal elements of pilepellis and stipitipellis were observed under compound microscope at 10x, 40x and 100x magnification after on material was mounted either in lactophenol or 5-10% KOH. DNA was extracted from dried basidiocarps and the nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using fungal specific primers (ITS1F/ITS4).On the bases of morphoanatomical and molecular study, 01 species i.e; Boletus pakistanicus has been found as new to science while two species viz. B. chyrsenteron andTylopilusporphyrosporus are first time reported from District Shangla.

Keywords - Biodiversity, Himalayas, Macrofungi, CTAB

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Ethno botanical studies on plant resources of Razmak, North Waziristan, Pakistan

Authors : Asif Raza Wazir , Syed Mukaram Shah , Mr. Abdul Razzaq

Abstract - An ethno-botanical survey was carried out to collect information on traditional uses of plant resources of Razmak, North Waziristan, Pakistan. About 189 vascular plant species, belonging to 69 families were utilized by the local people for various indigenous uses. Out of these 189 plants, 123 were used as medicinal, 87 as fuel wood species, 156 as fodder plants species, 30 as edible fruit, 30 species utilized in agricultural tools, 40 species as timber, 24 species used for thatching and sheltering, 30 species as vegetable and pot herb, 6 species were reported poisonous, 4 species important for veterinary medicines and 4 plant species had miscellaneous uses such as making of ropes, wooden spoons, kites, fans and brooms. Plant remedies are mainly prepared through infusion, decoction and concoction and administered through oral route or applied to skin. Data analyses indicated that the remedies were used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory diseases, skeleto-muscular problems, cutaneous complaints, blood circulatory diseases and many others. Field observations showed that deforestation, over grazing, agricultural expansion and unscientific collection, processing and preservation of natural vegetation are the major threats in the investigated area. Measures for the conservation of plant resources of Razmak forest are urgently needed.

Keywords - 

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Spruce tree-rings growth and Gilgit River flow correlation in Himalayan from Northern area of Pakistan

Authors : MUHAMMAD WAHAB, MOINUDDIN AHMED, NASRULLAH KHAN , SIRAJ AHMAD, HAFIZ ULLAH and TURE JAN

Abstract - Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss trees were sampled from Jutial a nearby valley to Gilgit City. The forest was located on 2930 altitude between coordinates N 35.25˚ and E 74.10˚ in steep ridge of mountain. About 40 samples were taken from 20 old and healthy trees. These samples were prepared, cross matched and measured in the laboratory following standard Dendrochronological methods. The crossdating accuracy was confirmed by the Cofecha program. We obtained 0.67 series intercorrelation and 0.36 mean sensitivities. A higher values of inter serial correlation shows the strength of common climatic signal while mean sensitivity indicate high variability in ring-width patterns, although lower values are more desirable. A dated tree ring chronology of about last five hundred years (1518-2008A.D) was developed using tree ring software Arstan (a Standardized program). The stream water of the said valley falls in the river Hunza near Gilgit city. Recorded River flow data from the same river was handled of below nearest catchment from WAPDA. A twelve months river flow data of 38 years (1966-2004) of the above mentioned river Dainyor and residual chronology version tree-ring series relationship was established. Correlation coefficient indicated that water flow and trees radial growth has direct relationship in January and March. While water flow and growth showed negative response in the months of pervious November, current February and August. All of these significant months explained 39% variance. The rest of months have no significant relationship. However, this is the preliminary results, it is suggested that more sites and species should be explore for better achievements.

Keywords - 

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PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND PHARMACOLOGY OF EUPHORBIA WALLICHII RHIZOME.

Authors : Rehman Ullah, Siraj ud Din and Saiqa Afriq Jan

Abstract - Euphorbia wallichii is a potent medicinal herb of Himalaya. The current was designed with the aim to screen Euphorbia wallichii rhizome for its therapeutic potential and to validate its traditional uses on scientific basis. Rhizome of Euphorbia wallichii was assisted for mineral composition through AAS revealed various macro and micronutrients in different concentration. Nutraceutical profile showed content of carbohydrates, crude lipids, protein, fiber, ash and moisture. In-vivo acute toxicity was assessed using swiss albino mice showed critical dose for morbidity and mortality as 1500mg/kg b.w and 2000mg/kg.bw respectively. Rhizome extract of E. wallichii (REEW) significantly shown dose dependent antipyrexia in brewer yeast induced hypertherimc mice. Alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic rabbits showed significant reduction in serum glucose level (SGL) treated with REEW compared to saline treated animals. LD50s of 24.17 µg/ml and 34.03 µg/ml were observed for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity and Aedes aegypti larvae respectively while Lemna phytotoxicity was observed with FI50 347.42 µg/ml

Keywords - 

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Ecology Of Riparian Vegetation Of Lund Khuwar, District Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

Authors : Muhammad Nauman Khan*, Nasir Khan**, Fazal Hadi*, Syed Mukaram Shah***, Abdul Razzaq

Abstract - The current study was carried out on the riparian vegetation of Lund Khuwar, Kaloshah, District Mardan. During research 77 plant species belonging to 61 genera and 36 families were observed and described ecologically. Asteraceae having 8 genera (13.11%) and 10 species (12.98%), followed by Poaceae which was represented by 8 genera (13.11%) and 8 species (10.8%). Lamiaceae having 4 genera (6.55%) and 4 species (5.19%) and Moraceae had 3 genera (3.91%) and 4 species (5.19%). The leading genera were Acacia and Chenopodium with 3 (4.91%) species each. Genera like Amaranthus, Euphorbia, Juncus, Marsilea, Morus, Populus, Polygonum, Tegetes, Zinnia and Zizipus were consisting of two 2 (3.27%) species each. There were 2 (5.55%) families of Pterediophytes which were consisting of 4 (5.19%) species and 3 (4.91%) of the total genera. There were 4 (11.1%) families of Monocotyledoneae with 12 (15.85%) species and 30 (83.83%) families of Dicotyledoneae. The dicot families comprised of 61 (79.22%) species of the total number of species. Life form, leaf size, phenology and abundance classes were also determined during present study. The plants were identified with the help of available literature (Flora of Pak). The plants were submitted to the Herbarium of Centre of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.

Keywords - 

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Honey bee flora of Miandan Valley Swat, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

Authors : Siraj Ahmad1*, Tariq Alam1, Nasir Ali1, Murad Khan1, Muhammad Wahab2 Hafiz Ullah3 and Waqar Ahmad

Abstract - The study was conducted in 2016 to 2017 different flowering season in Miandam valley of District Swat. The study revealed that there were 82 honeybee flora species are present which belong to 37 families. Rosaceae is the largest family, second is Lamiaceae, Brassicacea and Asteraceae is the third largest family.Other family are also present. Major honeybee flora in the area Rabdosa rugose and zea mays, Berberis lyceum Royle.medium honeybee flora are Zizyphus sativa and Brassica comprestis,minor bee flora are Nasturtium officinale,Fragaria nubicola ,Eriobotrya japonica Paeonia emodi. The area show abundant bee forage honey flow season start from March to august and September to October. November and December are scarcity season. Major problem in the area for bee foraging is over grazing, free harvesting, no modern techniques of bee flora management and no propagation of seed occurs in the area.

Keywords - 

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Impact of hormones on the proliferation of shoots and initiation of roots in Salvia santolinifolia (Boiss), a high value medicinal herb

Authors : Tour Jan1, Beena Naqvi2, Raiha Qadri3 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz4

Abstract - Salvia santolinifolia is a medicinal plant and an efficient in vitro conservation system was established. The influence of N6 Benzylaminopurine (BAP), N6-(2-isopentyl)-adenine (2iP) and Kinetin at various concentrations were evaluated alone and in combination with NAA for the production of axillary shoots from nodal explants. Maximum number (11.66±3.38) of shoots was produced on MS1 medium at 3.0 mg/l of BA while elongated (5.37±1.45) shoots was produced on MS2 medium at 2.0 mg/l of 2iP during subcultures. Minimum number of shoots were produced under the influence of combine used of auxin and cytokinins. Duration of culture period was an important consideration for the initiation and development of roots. Rooting of shoot was attained with 3.0 mg/l of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) from shoots of 4th, 5th and 6th subculture while shoots taken from 1st, 2nd and 3rd failed to formed roots

Keywords - 

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In vitro and in vivo Propagation of Monotheca buxifolia (falc.): A comphrensive study

Authors : Zahoor ul haq* and Abdur Rasheed*

Abstract - Monotheca buxifolia an economic and medicinal plant is restricted to limited areas due to deforestation, overgrazing, low regeneration, slow rate of germination, unsuccessful germination from cuttings and dormancy. Hence to cope with the issue of seed dormancy various invitro and invivo experiments were designed. The accidental breaking of seed through fungi (Rhizophous stenolifer) is also reported for the first time in current study. Different techniques used for breaking of dormancy are mechanical, chemical treatments i.e. (priming, scarification, stratification, ethanol, sulphuric acid, organic matter treatment, hot water) and tissue culture. Seeds were treated through various experiments in field, green house and laboratory. The scarified seeds placed on Murashige and skoog medium for proliferation and callus production was 60 % germination. Explants (Meristematic tissues) from field and tubes were inoculated on M. S (Murashige and skoog medium) + 2,4-D+ Kinetin. Meristematic tissues collected from field shows 10 % callus formation and meristematic tissues from tubes show significant result (70% callus formation). Our study concludes that the best suitable media for callus preparation of Monotheca is Murashige and skoog medium. Moreover, propagation of Monotheca via cutting is not possible. Development of callus explant from test tube was found to be more promising than field. Interestingly, Rhizophous stenolifer fungi can break dormancy of Monotheca seeds and found to promote growth significantly

Keywords - 

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